ENHANCING HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING FOR
THE EXERCISE SCIENCE AND HEALTH:
TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS USING INSTRUCTIONAL COMPUTING
Paper Presented by:
Prof. Edgar Lopategui
Interamerican University of Puerto Rico
Division of Education
Physical Education Department
A growing number of colleges
and universities in Puerto Rico, the United States of America, and other
parts of the world are using the computer technology to strengthen their
classroom teaching-learning process. Various higher educational institutions
have developed high-technological electronic multimedia classrooms, and
computer-related faculty training programs. Potential future trends are
clear. Instructional computing is widely used for classroom multimedia
digital media presentations and for interactive computer-based
training (CBT). More and more educators had changed their approach toward
the computer-based instruction (CBI), particularly the authoring
of computerized teaching materials.
The construction of CBI
programs for higher education can be oriented toward four basic types of
approaches: 1) drill and practice applications, 2) instructional tutorial
programs, 3) simulation applications, and 4) educational games. Most educators
empower these possible areas for the development of CBI applications with
represents the most recent technical development that had been incorporated
as an aid to the educational process and in the business world. The term
refers to an organized multisensory delivery and access of information
by a variety of display media, namely, text, computer graphics (charts
and graphs), static images, moving images (video), animation, and audio
sound (music, voice), which are integrated into an authoring presentation
system manipulated by a microcomputer and its user. Multimedia
uses different computer peripherals (computer monitor and/or projecting
device, CD-ROM player, video disk player, VCR tape deck, scanners, audio
digitizer, and other devices) to deliver the ideas and information of a
computer-generated presentation graphics or interactive multimedia application.
A multimedia delivery system represents a combination of
hardware and software that incorporates multiple media resources (text,
graphics, animation, video, and music/voice) within a personal computer
(PC) system. Multimedia is known to be interactive, which
means that the student controls and manage non-sequentially the direction
of the information provided by the CBI multimedia program. That is, there
is a back-and-forth interaction between the participant and the multimedia
software. Special interactive tools are incorporated into
the multimedia CBI applications, namely, hypertext and hypermedia.
is a metaphor used in interactive CBI applications to create non-sequential
net-like dynamic links of hot spots textual materials (e.g.,
words, phrases, and chunks of information) for easy search and access of
an interactive computer-based information database. For example, clicking
on highlighted words or phrases would randomly access other references
(e.g., a definition of a concept), objects/images, or audio/video sequences
or events. Therefore, hypertext provides a powerful navigational
tool that enables the user to search and display automatically
linked text-based information (the source end of the link) from a rich
variety of cross-references (the destination of the link). Hypermedia
represents the non-textual multimedia interaction of cross-connected pieces
information (e.g., menu buttons) that allows the viewer to begin anywhere,
to move around within the application, and to search, scan, browse, and
retrieve interconnected modules (the basic unit of a CBI application) and
related multimedia elements, such as, text, video clips, animation files,
sound, and graphics. Therefore, hypermedia provides to the
students a non-linear navigation that enables the access
of information according to their particular interests. Hypermedia
and interactive multimedia are often used interchangeably.
The use of interactive multimedia
delivery systems at the higher education setting greatly enhances the teaching-learning
process. It is well known from the educational studies that we remember
about 20% of what we hear, 40% of what we see and hear, and about 75% of
what we see, hear and do. In addition, CBI programs provides an 10 to 20%
of learning improvement as compared to conventional teaching classes (Molnar,
1990, cited in Oblinger, 1992, p. 6). Multimedia CBI programs provides
to the student with a variety of media elements from which the student
can actively select for an wide range of interactive experience that enhances
the learning processs. This multimedia learning process allows the student
a natural self-paced access of the information, which leads to a better
understanding and to discover on their own. Interactive multimedia CBI
applications makes possible the integration of media into interactive programs
with the potential to expand the use of visualization at different professional
disciplines, such as education, health science, natural science, and other
academic areas. Hypermedia-based CBI applications supplies to the student
an essential tool for an quick access of information and media displays
that will facilitate the student's research skills, stimulates problem-solving
situations, improve their abilities to acquire depth of knowledge, and
encourage them to create their own interpretation from personal experiences.
A meta-analysis study performed by Cohen & Decanay (1992) found that
CBI programs can also improve the effectiveness of the teaching-learning
process in health professions education.
Computer delivered courses
in the form of online multimedia presentations of the lectures increases
the attention and interest of the students by providing specific and near-real
life examples multimedia elements. Higher education faculty members are
using multimedia presentation graphics systems to improve their teaching
and conference presentations, as well as in their proposals for research
WHY INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA CBI AND PRESENTATIONS AT HIGHER EDUCATION
Interactive multimedia encourages
self-expresion and discovery by means of its interactive non-linear access
of information. Students will be more motivated to learn, since an multimedia
lesson (in the form of a digital presentation lecture and/or interactive
multimedia computer instruction) can provide near-reality information through
its variety of available media elements (text, sound, animation, and video).
The students may learn by using their multiple senses (particularly sight,
and hearing), which provides new and enriched experiences. The learning
process will be an active one, leaving the students to learn by their own.
The lecture and/or interactive/individualized lesson will provide a stimulating
environment that can improve the learning proccess by enhancing understanding
and retention of the subject matter (Galbreath, 1994; Oblinger, 1992).
A summary of the pedagogical and cost-effectve benefits
of interactive multimedia applications and lecture presentations at the
higher educational institutions are listed below (Jensen, 1991, cited in
Oblinger, 1992, pp. 9-10; Lamb, 1992; Miller, 1990, cited in Lamb, 1992,
1. The self-paced and discovery
features of interactive multimedia eventually will result in
mastery and increased retention of the information. The use of multisensory
to the students different visual and auditory cues, so that each one can
match his/her sensory
preferences and needs. Consequently, learning can be enhanced as well as
further interactive multimedia experience. The role of the professor will
change from one as a
dispenser of informations to a one as a facilitator for the educational
2. The interactivity nature
of multimedia CBI programs assures an active and constructive
educational procces among the students, since the lecture presentation
and or interactive
software will be controlled by the students decisions and abilities. Therefore,
the students will
be more in control of their own learning.
3. Well-developed multimedia
CBI applications will allow students to concentrate on the
concepts being taught, study particular issues (simulate problems), and
4. Real-life subjects matters
can be incorporated in the multimedia lesson. Such feature
provided by the multimedia lessons can supply to the student the capacity
near-reality hazardous content matters without life-threatening risks.
5. Reinforcement by means
of feedback is possible during an interactive multimedia CBI
lesson. This encourage motivation and provides for a better understanding
6. The use of interactive
multimedia among students reduce the time required for the learning
process. Multimedia-based CBI applications will decrease the time needed
by the students
to master associated concepts.
7. In terms of cost-effective
advantages, interactive multimedia reduce the cost per student for
the development of educational material.
8. The delivery of instructional
material are more consistent as compared with traditional lecture
9. Interactive multimedia
provides individualization and student privacy.
10. The teaching-learning process can
also be improved at the higher education level when the
professor use online multimedia capable presentation graphics for their
class lectures. These
multimedia presentations can increase the students attention to the class
lecture and clarify
complex concepts. Moreover, class discussion and analytical thinking can
when the professor expose the students with special issues and hidden facts
interactive multimedia tools. The professor can use these tools to fulfill
objectives of the class lessons.
11. Higher educational teaching-learning
process can be significantly enhanced due to the nature
hypertext/hypermedia tools which can be incorporated in the multimedia
CBI application or
classroom presentation. For example, previous particular lecture notes/topics
can be easily
access, so that specific doubts and requested questions by the student
can be clarified.
Furthermore, information inserted a during a digital presentation lecture
can be recalled in
12. The content discussed during the
lectures can easily be made available at the university
computer networks or stand-alone computer stations. Such valuable campus
possible afterward reviews of the class lectures and can clarify unanswered
questions of the
class subject. Likewise, students that had miss one or more presentation
lectures can latter
view the topic discussed during the computer-generated presentation. Similarly,
lessons and test can be scheduled for those students with poor learning
13. During the preparation of the multimedia
materials, the professor will have to put more
attention on the particular topic developing and to amplify his imaginative
for an effective delivery of the class presentation
14. Interactive CBI can assure an equally
access of high-quality education.
15. Education and training cost will
be significantly reduced.
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA CBI DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
All types of developed instructional lessons and/or presentations have
The authors are engaged in the process of composing multimedia
elements, incorporating media displays (still and moving images, sound
bytes, and plain text), cross-references, and other pieces of information
into an integrated hypermedia-based multimedia application (Fisher, 1994).
Stated in another form, authoring for multimedia CBI programs and classroom
presentation refers to the process by which the developer use an authoring
system to create educational programs or on-line presentation designed
to serve as an teaching tool. An authoring system represents
the software package used to integrate various interactive/multimedia documents
into a single multimedia CBI application and/or presentation (Fisher, 1994,
p. 269). Commercially available multimedia authoring softwares must be
the first choice for the novice professor when planning for the development
of interactive multimedia CBI programs. Within the Windows operating system
environment, those professors with more experience and some knowlege in
programming, it is recommended to combine his multimedia project using
an Window-based programming language, such as C and C++ (Perry, 1994, p.
15). The majority of Windows itself is written in C. Therefore, an efective
multimedia application would rather be written with C or C++. The interactive
programs created with these languages will benefit in terms of speed and
execution than those applications generated solely by authoring softwares
(Perry, 1994 p. 15). Normally, the authoring of multimedia is a team approach,
requiring several different people, each with separate skills.
CBI principles and steps. For any type of CBI multimedia application
development process, the professor should follow specific design principles,
so that the success of the final product can be assured. Cates (1992) had
nicely developed fifteen basic principles. These principles are described
The interactive CBI must couple with the present curricular emphases.
It is of great importance that the potential CBI application meet the student's
and curricular needs. The program must provide a relationship between the
content of the curriculum and/or of the goals/objectives of the particular
The interactive CBI must couple with the present pedagogical practice.
The CBI application should provide to the professors adequate instructional
The interactive CBI must couple with the present educational time
limitations. Interactive multimedia CBI programs must allow the
students to interact with the program within the normal restraints of the
class schedules. In addition, the CBI application should provide an effective
and easy launching and exit of the computerized lesson. This means that
the student is able in any moment to stop the program, exit it, and later
run it again without loosing track of his previous work.
The interactive CBI should be able to meet the particular needs of
the professors. The CBI program must provide easy-to-use commands
and interface, so that the professors and students could perform effective
non-sequential search of information or media elements according to their
interests and special needs.
Those interactive CBI programs that incorporate a database feature,
must provide an easy access of it upon request of particular research material.
The interactive CBI application should be designed with efficient search
tools from a rich-content database. The student should be able to perform
a database search by means of different methods. Additionally, the database
developed by the professor for the CBI lesson should adequately embrase
educational information that can satisfy the instructional goals and the
research objectives. Another important design feature that must embody
en effective database tool is the capacity to export computer
files and to get printed copies of the information requested.
The interactive CBI database must be expandable. The CBI
database should contain an import tool. This will be able
to provide a more individualized and personalized approach that should
be able to enhance the educational process. The import capability of the
databse assures a prolonged life for the use of the program, since the
student could incorporate new material into the program's database. Such
importable material should comprise all type of media elements (text, graphics,
photos, and audio segments).
The design of interactive multimedia CBI database should be capable
to aid to the development of the research abilities that must possess the
students. The CBI database should be furnished with easy-affluency
of assorted-rich resource data and a simple hyperlink for
the research process. In other words, the search mechanismfor specific
topics from the database should be one that helps the user to inquiry the
information through easy steps, so that the student can eventually learn
the procees to access media elements from any database.
The interactive CBI should be able to invite the students in an active
reasoning-thinking process concerning their present knowlege and on-going
learning of information. The professor developing the interactive
CBI should have in mind todesign his application within an pedagogical
framework oriented toward the development of the thinking abilities. The
CBI applications must provide an active participation of the students,
in order to inspire an original productive body of comprehension and knowlege
from the interactive process and from their personal experiences. Therefore,
in order to improve the teaching-learning process, the aplication must
facilitate to the student an active learning environment by which he can
develop creative/constructive understandings and knowledges of the subject
The intercative CBI design must provide an "user-friendly" educational
setting. The CBI application should be constructed around the needs
of an novice student that uses the program for the first time. The novice
student must be able to follow the basic features and tools of the program
without reading the mannual of such application. This can be accomplished
in the following possible ways:
If the interactive CBI design includes the use of videodisk, the
developer must be sure to incorporate - in addition of full motion video
- other types of media elements. These media components can be
special graphics and still images (such as, photographs, maps, and other
illustrations), and textual documents. An export capability will provide
to the user the advantage of printing those documents he needs.
The interactive CBI design should incorporate meaningful video clips
that clarifies the retrieved information and compel an effective use of
them within the application environment. The video clips must be
well produced and appropriate to the interactive lesson. The professor
developing the CBI application should be very careful to include well-made
video segments that are significant and necessary to the interactive lessons
and can serve as effective instructional tool.
The interactive CBI application must use the appropriate/correct
writting and grammar. The content matter within the application
must be accurate and utilize the correct language. The developers need
to be sure that their CBI applications follows the appropriate grammar,
spelling, and punctuation.
The interactive nature of the CBI application should be developed
in a significant manner. The instructions provided by the program
should stimulate the students to be actively involved in the interactive
process. The multimedia interaction must be meaningful for the students
and should motivate them to explore/discover according to their particular
interests and needs within the content of the subject matter under study.
The students should be capable of employing the application's hypertext/hypermedia
tools to interconnect toward special links that can encourage the student's
thinking-reasoning mechanism during an decision-making process of particular
meaningful problem-solving situations.
The interactive CBI application must stress context facts. Those
applications that follow this important principle will be able to eventually
supply to the student with the comprehension of vital interrelated subjects
as well as a better understanding of concepts related to other facts within
the content of the application lesson.
The interactive CBI application should provide valuable multimedia
database-related print materials. All print materials should be
easy to read and include a set of clear instructions regarding the use
of the hardware and CBI application. Lesson plans with instructional goals,
objectives, and rationales must be provided within the printing options
of the CBI program. Other possible printing materials that could be included
for the professors are the scope and sequence charts as related to the
Poston (1993) had developed
an easy to follow steps when creating interactive CBI applications. These
steps consist of:
Incorporating to the application practical-easy to follow on-screen instructions
and messages. Also, it should be included an easy to access help
or guidance that provides specific instructions on how to use the items/objects
present on the screen.
The interface design must be simple and consistent. The screen items/objects
should be limited to those only essential. In must be avoided to much items/objects
at the same time in the screen application. The buttons and icons must
have some significance with the application. On-line help messages can
be incorporated to the application to clarify the functions of the icon/images
in the screen.
Planning the interactive
multimedia application. Planning the development of an effective interactive
multimedia softwares at the the higher education sphere requires a careful
following of specific developmental stages/steps. The planning process
consist of six general stages or steps (Alessi & Trollip, 1991, pp.
244-273; Fisher, 1994, pp. 223-227; Linderstrom, 1994 pp. 90-129; NRI Schools,
1993, pp. 1-26; Price, 1991, pp. 61-82; Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 139-151), namely:
1) analysis, 2) design, 3) logistics and production, 4) production of supporting
material, 5) implementation, and 6) evaluation.
Choosing a specific topic for the CBI lesson. This process
requires to identify aninstructional problem and the needs of the end-users
(audience, i.e., the students). The problem/topic must be narrowed.
Choosing the tools required to develop the interactive multimedia
CBI applications. Based on the technical expertise/knowlege and
experience in the computer field by the professor, he must decide if the
lesson will be developed by means of traditional programing languages (e.g.,
BASIC, Pascal), Window-based languages (C or C++), or by commercially available
Development of the instructional design by creating a map of the
program's features. This process consist of first defining the
objectives and goals of the audience. Next, the professor design a flowchart
or "map" of the program's structure. Such architure should include the
program branches, events input points, graphics and other important features
needed in the program. An important factor to consider when creating the
CBI lesson is to maintain the learner's attention to the application. This
can be performed by including hypertext/hypermedia tools to to the CBI
program, a good screen design, and continuous reinforcement (positive/negative
feedback) througout the the program.
Analysis. This fase
of development consist of two specific steps: 1) the goals analysis, and
2) the need analysis.
1) THE GOALS ANALYSIS.
It is essential that the professor is capable to determine the
purpose or general idea of what he hope to accomplish from the multimedia
project. In other
words, the professor should analyze and determine the overall goals for
multimedia CBI proyect/lesson. Each lesson that comprises the CBI program
particular goals. Goals are general/broad statements. The goal of the interactive
involves what the student must know or be capable to perform after finishing
the CBI lesson.
Establishing the lesson goal implies the assesment of the specific characteristics
educational needs of the students. A good interactive multimedia CBI application
meet the needs of the students and curriculum. Therefore, the multimedia
CBI project must
be well-integrated into the academic curriculum of the college or university.
Once the general
purpose/goal of the multimedia project had been established, the professor
determine the best approach required to acomplish such purpose. This can
be answered by
the results of the need analysis. Furthermore, the developer (i.e., the
determine the content, and guidelines to be used. The profesor must set
realistic limits of his
potential application according to the available resources (particularly
resources) and time.
2) THE NEED ANALYSIS.
It is vital to the establish/assess interest and instructional needs
the students (the target audience). This can be carry out by gathering
brainstorming (generating ideas, solving problem and/or collecting data),
observation of the group of students involved during specific working class
(using questionaires), interview of experts or other faculty members related
to the matter you
teach, and literature review. According to Allessi and Trollip (1991),
the need analysis of the
intended students can be performed by determining the characteristics (such
as, age and
revelant skills), present competencies, limitations, and familiarization
with the subject matter
included in the CBI lesson of these students. After establishing the goals
and objectives of
the project, the professor must determine the best approach to meet these
goals. During the
need analysis, the professor should analyze the audience (students), determine
and define the delivery system.
a) Analyzing the audience (audience analysis). After the professor
had established his
general goals, the next step is to identify any characteristics, attitudes,
expectations of the students. This will help develop the design of the
which is part of the process of defining the target audience. The professsor
know their students, their level ofknowlege of the subject matter, expected
skills, and other characteristics. Defining detailed characteristic of
your target students
should include the following considerations: demographics (statistical
your students, such as age, gender, level of knowledge of the subject matter)
(opinions and outlooks shared among the students) preferences (such as,
interests, and dislikes), experiences (such as knowlege level of the subject
computer experience), expectations (will the students expect that the CBI
should provide entertainment as well as an learning experience of the subject/lesson?).
b) Defining the content (content analysis). Once the professor have
perspective of the particular needs of the intended students, its time
to determine more
specifically what should be included in the subject matter of the propossed
From the goals, and need analysis, the content and concept
will be developed. The
content analysis will determine more specifically the subject/topic
to be covered of
your interactive multimedia CBI application or digital presentation lecture.
of the multimedia presentation or CBI application defines specific information
to communicate the message (such as, facts, figures, and other data). The
analysis may consist of deciding on a storyline, researching and organizingreferences
information, or outlining the rules of the game. The concept
establish the manner in
which the professor is going to present the content, so that
the pre-established goals
can be attained. The developer/professor should determine the limits/scope
project. Such process will aid in the establishment of the type of application
for the multimedia project. Take time to determine the cost of the production
the CBI lesson scope. Establish the media resources needed. The most important
of the content analysis is the base knowlege of the subject
matter (rules, definitions,
concepts, and physical skills/task). In order to develop the content
of an educational
application, the professor must first create instructional/learning objectives.
these objectives, the professor will be capable to create a general outline
required topics to covered within the content of the CBI
lesson. It is recommended to
estabish specific intructional/learning objectives for both the end of
a lesson (general or
terminal objectives) and intermediate points during the lesson (intermediate,
enabling objectives) (Allesi & Trollip, 1991; Price, 1991). One of
the most important
aspects to be considered during the content analysis is to adopt an systematic
methodology todetermine the topics, content, and approaches used to develop
application. For instance, the topics that should be included in the content
of the CBI
lesson can be established by means of several methods, such as brainstorming
generate creative ideas), a preliminary research to gather information
create the CBI program, and other tools. Once the professor had collected
evaluated the information for the lesson, the following step is to organize
c) Determining the delivery system. After the completion of the
above stages, the
professor should analyze the delivery system, so that it
he could determined the tools
needed. The delivery system refers to multimedia computer-based
player that the
intended students will employ to view andinteract with the CBI lesson (Fisher,
9.). The When establishing the delivery system, the professor should consider
following factors: (1) physical environment (of the application), (2) the
requirements, (3) the delivery media, (4) hardware needs, and (5) types
softwares required to develop the proposed CBI lesson.
The first step is to analyze
the factors affecting the application's environment. Normally the professors
can develop their CBI programs for the campus computer center or for the
classroom presentation lectures. In such places, the professor must take
in consideration those physical surroundings factors that can negatively
affect the student learning process. Such physical entourages factors can
be accessiblity, distraction/noise, light, and temperature. All these factores
will eventually determine the way the professor is going to design the
DETERMINE THE PHYSICAL CIRCUMAMBIENCY WHERE THE APPLICATION IS GOING TO
The CBI application developmental
process will also be affected by certain functional features to be considered,
such as, types of media to be used (e.g., sound, video, graphics, etc.),
degree of complexity of the CBI application, special features required,
types of hypertext/hypermedia tools to be incorporated, audio and video
requirements, and so forth. The above information gathered must now be
reviewed to determine the hardware and software requirements of the proposed
DETERMINE THE FUNCTIONAL REQUIRENMENTS FOR THE INTERACTIVE CBI APLLICATION:
Now is time to determine the
way the professor is going to deliver his multimedia CBI application to
is target students. For small applications, the professor may deliver his
multimedia project on a floppy disk. Athother option is to compress the
application onto floppy disk for installation on a hard drive. For a larger
multimedia project, the professor will require a high-capacity delivery
medium such as CD-ROM or laserdisc. There is currently a great deal of
interest at many educational settings for the development of multimedia
interactive Compact Disks (CD). CBI delivery in the form of interactive
multimedia training applications can be more effective if its information
can be digitally stored in a CD-ROM. The CD-ROM can store up to 650 megabytes
(MB) of data, including multimedia files (e.g., motion video, animation,
DETERMINE THE DELIVERY MEDIA TO BE EMPLOYED FOR THE INTERACTIVE CBI APLLICATION:
The available hardware
that the university possess should be considered when deciding how to the
deliver the multimedia application to your students. The Three types of
hardware used for multimedia are the computer, peripherals, and add-on-boards.
The multimedia computer setup requires a fast Central Processing Unit (CPU),
such as an Pentium 90 or higher, a minimum of 16MB Random Access Memory
(RAM) upgradable to 32MB or more. It is recommended a full tower computer
case, builded with a PCI-motherbord system coupled with PCI slots (buses).
The CBI lesson requiere basic/important peripherals. Peripherals are devices
(such as, monitors, disk drives, printers, modems, and joysticks) that
are connected to a computer but are physical separated. The computer monitor
should have a minimum of 1024x768 resolution. At least a 64-bit PCI graphic
card with 2MB (better with 4MB) of Video RAM (VRAM) and a 15-inch (better
with a 17-inch or higher) monitor is required in order to run 24-bit 800x600
motion video and graphics without disconcerting color palette fluctuations.
Multimedia performance is greatly enhanced with the use of a quad or six
speed CD-ROM drive. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) host adapters
cards are recommeded, since it can chain up to seven drives off of a single
adapter (making available more peripheral slots for other cards, such as
an internal modem, and it provides less conflicts. SCSI host adapters with
internal SCSI ports can control a hard disk, with a higher disk speed,
as compared with IDE drives. SCSI is most useful when you need to have
a variety of different devices active or available simultaneously without
conflict. It is suggested a minimum of 1 gigabyte (GB) of hard disk (equivalent
to 1,000 megabytes). In addition, removable external or internal storage
is strongly recommended, particularly when capturing video clip files.
Recently a variety of new relatively low cost removable storage had been
launched to the market. Two affordable drives have currently a high demand
by their user, these are the the 100 MB Zip drive from Iomega and the 135
MB EZ 135 drive from SyQuest. On the other hand, for multimedia delivery
system I recommend a much higher storage capacity. The Iomega corporation
have available two fast and relative cheep magneto-optical (MO) drives,
namely the Jaz. Meanwhile, Pinnacle micro this year (1996)
have available a new high storage capacity drive, the Apex 4.6 Optical
Hard Drive, which uses a rewritable MOdisk. Panasonic distribute a removable
storage that integrates a CD-ROM Drive, its called the PD/CD-ROM
Drives. The Panasonic PD/CD-ROM Drives includes a kit that is composed
of a SCSI-2 cable, Corel drivers and one PD cardridge. Another alternate
data storage is the use of a CD-Recordable (CD-R) drive system. A CD-R
drive can reduce bureau cost to a minimum, and speed up your production
process. The final "gold master" can be sent to a duplicator. Scanners
can be used capture still images from magazines, books, and so forth. Video
cameras, VCRs, or videodisc are sources of video input, so that the professor
can capture motion or still video. Add-on boards (expansion boards or cards)
are units which plug into the computer and either control some essential
funtion or provide a special feature. Typical expansion boards add memory,
disk-drive controllers, video support, parallel and serial ports, and internal
modems. If full motion video is required for multimedia, we recommed the
use of a frame grabber (video capture board). Video capture cards can be
used for digitizing analog video souces into AVI (Audio Video Interleave)
file format. For better results, use MPEG or M-JPEG capture and editing
systems. The most used video capture card is the Intel's Digital Interactive
(DVI). This board is connected into the computer's bus and allows for digitizing,
compression, storage, and playback of full-motion video. For sound, an
audio capture and playback board is required. The sound system represent
an important device for your multimedia computer delivery system. It is
very important to choose a sound card that is compatible with your CD-ROM
drive. Sound cards are also sold in a bundle with the CD-ROM drive. This
will assure that both of these multimedia devices work harmoniously.
DETERMINE THE REQUIRED HARDWARE FOR THE INTERACTIVE CBI APLLICATION:
In addition, the professor must
select the software to develop the application as well to deliver it. The
operating system must be defined (DOS or WINDOWS). Any specific drivers
required to run the application must be determined. A driver
is a program that controls or regulates another device (e.g., a mouse or
printer). Media drivers enables a computer to work with media
divices, such as CD-ROM, sound card, video capture board, and so forth.
At this point the professor must decide if he is going to use a programming
language such as Pascal or C, or an authoring system such as Multimedia
Toolbook, Authorware, Director 4, HSC Interactive, and others. These authoring
systems are softwares tools designed specially for the developmenmt of
interactive CBI multimedia projects. Faculty members may better benefit
of these programs, particularly if they lack of programming skills. The
selection of the authoring system must be carry out early in the development
process. The mayority of the authoring systems allows lay out screen elements
(backgrounds, graphics, and text), the creation of simple animations, special
effects, and on-screen interactions. Some authoring systems permit to define
variables for collecting students input information, and interface the
interactive multimedia application with peripherals (e.g., CD-ROM, videodisc
players). Many authoring tools are capable to interface with programming
languages. Before selecting an authoring software, spend some time understanding
how the different types of available authoring tools works. The professor
must look for the following features that can provide the authoring tool:
1) help tools, 2) hypertext tools (used when text is the primary type of
content), 3) multimedia presentation tools, 4) computer-based training
tools (include many interactive tasks), and 4) portable docummnet tools
(display on-screen replicas of documents formatted for print).
DETERMINE THE REQUIRED SOFTWARE FOR THE DEVELOPMEMT OF THE INTERACTIVE
of the content and function of the potential application will aid in the
development of the preliminary design. In this second fase, the professor
should create flow-charts (diagrams describing the operations a computer
performs; visual representation of decisions and events) and scripts, so
that the final product can be seen. Storyboarding (preparing textual and
pictorial displays, drafting the actual instructional messages) is important
in this fase. Storyboards includes visual or graphical information, questions,
reinforcement (feedback), guidelines/directions, prompts, graphics/pictures,
animations/movies, and other key visual sketches that should be incorporated
in the proposed multimadia CBI lesson and/or presentation.
Logistics and Production.
refers to the determination and management of the resources materials for
instructional disign (text, storyboarding sheets, graphics arts, a word
processor, persons with experience in instructional design, etc.), resource
materials for delivery system (hardware, mannuals, experts in software
development, etc.), and subject-matter resources (textbooks, reference
books, original source materials, films, and other people knowledgeable
in the area). The production of a multimedia CBI utilizing an on-line presentation
delivery form and/or an interactive/random access CD-ROM application (employing
an authoring program) requires the use of a hefty array of commercially
available softwares. In addition of the authoring application, the professor
may need to enhance his multimedia creation using animation/morphing programs,
photo/image-editing softwares, paint and illustration (drawing) programs,
digital video and audio software editors, and a bundle of royalty-free
CD-ROM media clips (photoCD, bitmaps images, vector graphics cliparts,
and video and sound clips), and other software utilities (format converters
for graphics, audio, fonts and other file types, screen/window capture
utilities, draw/trace programs, etc). There are excellent commercially
available cliparts, background pictures/textures, animations, and video
and sound clips available on CD-ROM (refer to appendix A). Some recent
authoring packages and presentation softwares include audio and video editing
tools. Use scanners to digitize pictures and/or slides. Production consist
of those steps needed to culminate the multimedia project. During this
stage of development, the professor will integrate the multimedia elements
into the CBI application. This process is possible by means of authoring
software tools which aids in an easy-non-programming manner the proposed
interactive multimedia application. The final product should be tested
Production of Supporting
Materials. Worksheets, diagrams, exams, photographs (PhotoCD or "scanned"),
and assignment sheets.
implementation stage may need the employment of a variety of multimedia
delivery systems for different kind of multimedia CBI softwares.
Evaluation. To asure
a high quality production, the professor must constantly evaluate the multimedia
proyect during every stage of the development process. It is imperative
to make the required changes according to the results of this evaluation.
Once the final product is distributed at the campus computer stations or
delivered at the lecture presentation, the professor must assess the degree
of achievement from the pre-established goals and objectives. This can
be performed by collecting feedback and information from the intended students
and members of the faculty of your department. The appropriate feedback
must be received from the target students, from experts in the computer
field (particularly those devoted to develop educational applications),
and from specialist in content of the created CBI application. Assess how
the multimedia CBI lesson works by observing the results of real students
studying the CBI program and assessing how much they learn. Moreover, the
professor can further evaluate the multimedia project by using it and having
other people with design experience go through it. This stage is vital,
since it will determine the the quality of future multimedia productions.
The multimedia project must follow the curiculum standards, and should
be employed only as an adjunct learning tool. Areas of evaluation that
should be solicited from the students, CBI experts, and faculty members
include the following (Price, 1991, pp. 110-116): 1) instructional adequacy
(for reaching the objectives), 2) aesthetic adecuacy (appearance), 3) program
adecuacy (determine if the application runs as originately planned/disigned),
and 4) curriculum adecuacy (according to accepted standards and practices).
CD-ROM Project Planning.
Planning for the developmnet of an interactive CD includes the folowing
initial steps: 1) defining the project and work, 2) Determining the resources
and budget requirements, 3) establishing the project schedule. Before begining
to work with the authoring tool and/or presentation software, the professor
should try to resolve the design components for the CBI interactive delivery,
namely: 1) User interface, 2) interactive branching, 3) determine the ways
and means the user will be able to access the educational components of
the CBI interactive program, and 4) at what time the multimedia elements
will appear in the courseware (Protus, 1994).
MULTIMEDIA IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION SETTING
Higher education must keep
up with the current changes in technology. The most recent revolutionary
change is multimedia computing. It is the responsability of the colleges
and universities to bring up this new technology to the faculty and classroom.
The implementation of a multimedia project at colleges and and universities
requires a great deal of planning and development of specific strategies.
It is suggested to first evaluate the university faculty interests and
needs concerning the development of computer-generated presentations for
their classes and instructional interactive multimedia applications (Sammons,
The team approach.
The success of a multimedia program at the higher education level will
greatly depend on the available human resources. Hardware and software
will have meaningless function if the faculty does not know how to use
it. A multimedia classroom cant't be developed if the administration of
the university doesn't provides the required funding. Oblinger (1992) had
suggested the creation of three vital groups for the multimedia project
at the educational setting. These are:
Suggested steps for academic
multimedia program development. At this point, it is indispensable
to organize and appropriately set-up the univerity-based multimedia program.
The succeeding list will address over this process (Oblinger, 1992).
Faculty leader. This group should help spread the academic
vision concerning the use of multimedia technology for the CBI projects
and to provide a link between different faculty departments.
Administrative leader. An important group that possess the
vital function of providing the necessary funding for hardware, software,
construction of multimedia classrooms, and training of the faculty.
Computer support leader. This last group will provide the
expertise required to set-up the needed hardware/software and infra-structure
for training the faculty and for the building of the multimedia classroom.
The computer support group will also provide technical advice to the professosr
developing interactive multimedia CBI applications.
Determinants for the incorporation
of a multimedia project at higher education level. The effectiveness
of interactive multimedia CBI programs at the higher educational setting
depends of various factors, such as the available financial resources/funding,
the faculty initiate/leadership, staff support, administration support,
technical support/services, and available time (Hazen, 1992; Lamb, 1992;
Oblinger, 1992; Sammons, 1994). These factor are described below:
The priority for all multimedia CBI programs developed by the faculty is
that they should follow sound pedagogical principles.
Those novice professors engaged in new multimedia projects can look for
help from other experienced faculty members that already had developed
multimedia projects to their classes, as well from the computer support
group. For instance, such experienced professors can offer recommendations
and some guidance regarding what types o multimedia elements are required
in their interactive CBI applications or of digital lecture presentation,
and the needful hardware/software for the multimedia CBI lesson delivery.
Software selection must meet the professor's needs and available resources.
They should seek for advice from other faculty members who has worked with
the development of CBI applications. It is critical that the professor
understand the technical aspects of the authoring package. The computer
support group can schedule workshops of these authoring softwares for those
professors beggining in the authoring of multimedia CBI classes. Furthermore,
the authoring software must match the time requirements and the proposed
goals of the multimedia CBI lesson.
It is mandatory that those professors working with authoring softwares
identify the required development system for building multimedia
interactive CBI lesson, and the delivery system used to display
such application. The development system refers to the computer
hardware, video/audio recording and editing equipment, as well as other
programs necessary to run the authoring package, so that the interactive
instructional lesson can be created (Fisher, 1994, p. 9). The delivery
system establish the multimedia hardware and equipmnent to be employed
during the presentation of the interactive CBI program.
The university should periodically schedule training workshops for their
teaching faculty members, as well to their administrative personnel. These
training workshops must provide adequate guidance in the use of the authoring
softwares. Moreover, the faculty training workshops should supply them
with the necessary technical skills needed to produce appropriate multimedia
programs for their classroom lecture presentations and for the production
of CBI courseware.
According to Dr. Martin B. Solomon (1994), the integration of multimedia
at higher education will be adequately developed if the following factors
can be implemented:
Faculty training. An essential component of an successful
multimedia program at the higher education level is the training and development
time devoted to the faculty members. It is suggested to schedule formalized
workshops regarding hardware and software, and in the trouble-shooting
and repair of minor problems (Sammons, 1994). Sammons (1994), had recommended
that these workshops should have a duration of one to two hours, with practical
exercise, and the production of something that can be applicable to their
classes and be taught by other faculty members.
Computer-technical support services. It is evident the need
of consultants that can help the faculty members to effectively develop
multimedia CBI applications. It must be provided to the professors developing
multimedia projects readily available technical support.
Financial support. The need of funding for equipment and
software is imperative to ensure an adecuate and efficient production of
interactive multimedia CBI programs.
Administration support. The administration of the university
should give credit and support for the multimedia materials produced by
the professors. Sammons (1994) recommends that these faculty members working
on multimedia projects (for computer-based presentations lectures, or interactive
CBI applications) should be rewarded in some way.
The equipment must be readily available. The multimedia system
must be easy to access.
Time for the development of multimedia materials. The
faculty members should be provided with ample time for the development
of multimedia materials and to learn the technical aspects of hardware
and software. Possibly, this can done by a reduction of the normal teaching
1. Instead of using expensive multimedia PC systems, the multimedia
can be delivered
Roadblocks for the widespread use of multimedia at
the higher education setting. It is not an easy task the inclusion
of an multimedia instructional courseware at the university ambiency, yet
is not impossible. Nevertheless, there are some factors that hinders the
prosperity of multimedia programs at higher education. Some of these are
the following (Solomon, 1994):
by a network.
2. The material developed by means of multimedia authoring softwares
marketed for considerable number of target students.
3. Availability of more commercially high quality multimedia CBI programs.
Factors affecting faculty
participation in computer-multimedia generated presentations of their classroom
lectures. In general, it has been stated that college and university
faculty members lags behind in the process of incorporating multimedia
into their teaching (Sammons, 1994). Within an already instructional multimedia
program at higher education setting, only about 2% to 3% of all the faculty
members utilizes the multimedia hardware and software (Sammons, 1994).
Why does this happens?. Some answers are addressed from an survey study
performed at Wright State University for the faculty members of the College
of Liberal Arts' Notebook project (Sammons, 1994).
Culture of higher education. The faculty members of many
colleges and universities perceive that they do not have enough time consigned
to carry out effective changes in their lecture presentation classes. Moreover,
another faculty sector feels that they don't have the necessary support
from the administration for the promotion of innovative classroom activities.
In addition, in a great number of higher educational institutions, the
curret teaching load hinders the required time for the development of interactive
multimedia aplications and classrooms presentations. For example, the normal
teaching load is 15 or 18 contact hours per semester, consequently, less
time will be available for the authoring of instructional multimedia lessons.
Financial costs. The higher educational institutions looking
out to put into work an instructional multimedia project for their faculty
and administrators will need to make a significant investment. Good hardware
and software requires a great deal of funding.
Diversity among technical platforms and standards. The large
number of different technical standards, such as the formats for graphics,
video and full-motion video increases the cost of investment. Moreover,
the connection of computer peripherals implies a costly, and unwiedly work.
Likewise, this do not provide for remote access from the residency of the
faculty members or even from their offices. Therefore, it is more practical
a network with internet access capabilities by which the students can obtain
an educational experience from his home and/or office. This new technology
is present in many universities and is known as distance education.
Multiple talents required. The production of well designed
multimedia applications or presentatios demands too many different skills.
A good instructional multimedia program requires skilled, trained technicians
in the computer science field. The tipical university faculty possess an
inadequate training regarding the developing of multimedia programs. It
has been documented that 98% of the faculty members of an university lack
of the necessary technical experience for the production of high-quality
multimedia courseware (Solomon, 1994).
Time required. It takes to much time to produce successful
good-quality multimedia applications and presentations. Much more time
is spent in planning and design of the multimedia elements. Programming
and debugging adds to the burden. As a result, the mayority of the faculty
that becomes involved into a multimedia project soon gives up due to the
immense required time.
Lack of equipment. Faculty members feel that they lack of
computer equipment. The multimedia equipment appears to be not readily
available to the faculty.
Lack of time. The university faculty perceive a lack of enough
time to be devoted to the development of multimedia materials and for computer
Lack of knowledge and skills. The higher education faculty
member's perceptions is that they are uncertain of how to develop multimedia
materials for their courses. In addition, the faculty don't really know
the way these multimedia products can help attain the instructional goals
of these courses, and what type of material are need to be incorporated
into the computer-multimedia generated presentation lecture.
INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA AUTHORING TOOLS FOR CBI DEVELOPMENMT AND
The development of higher
education software is often a difficult process. Not many educators and
scholars know to write programs. High quality higher education courseware
requires a multi-discipline team approach, in which high-tech programmers
can serve as consultants conjointly with the faculty members of the university.
The complexity of designing interactive multimedia CBI applications and
digital screen show multimedia presentations will be deterrent for those
faculty members working in the production of multimedia materials if assistance
from experts in this field are not readily available. However, multimedia
materials prepared using commercially available authoring software packages
can indeed change this panorama. Current commercially available interactive
multimedia authoring softwares now show great promise for developing effective
interactive multimedia CBI applications and computer-based multimedia presentations.
The authoring process.
is the process of sequencing the CBI application or lecture presentation,
laying out media elements on the screen, and entering the instructions
for the required interactivity. A multimedia CBI author is
the professor that plans and designs the interactive CBI courseware, and
the related materials. The tool of the multimedia CBI author's trade is
referred to as authoring software. Authoring is the heart
of multimedia production, where all of the media elements come together
and are assigned a place and time. Those faculty members planning to develop
an educational authoring application should be sure to allow plenty of
time for authoring, especially if they are new to the authoring software
to be using.
Types of multimedia authoring
softwares. Multimedia authoring applications can be grouped into two
categories: 1) sophisticated interactive multimedia authoring tools, and
2) multimedia capable computer-generated presentation graphics (online/screen
or slide show programs), (Head, 1992; Lindstrom, 1994; Wolfgram, 1994,
p. 24). In this section we will discuss first the multimedia authoring
tools devoted for CBI buildup. Later, I will describe
the multimedia capable presentation graphics that can be employed for
the classroom presentation lectures.
Selecting an authoring
application. Multimedia authoring software selection is the most important
decision you will make for multimedia CBI lessons and/or lecture presentations.
Before the professor and/or academic institution engage in the purchase
of an authoring software, they should conduct an assessment of the commercially
available authoring programs, in which a comparative analysis is performed
from a standpoint of software capabilities and ability to support learning
objectives (Wulfekuhle, 1994). Those factors to be considered during the
evaluation process should be the followings: audio and visual capabilities,
level of compatibilty to the existing hardware and software, compatibility
and support with multimedia elements, ease of controlling multimedia elements,
import capabilities of images/graphics, flexibility/compatibility of the
import capabilities and data exchange from other programs (the degree of
cross-platform support), degree of dificulty of the authoring program's
command language, available testing and feedback options to students, capability
to test the student's ability to apply concepts, hypertext-readiness and
adaptability to associated multimedia elements, ability to load massive
ammounts of information, support of programming variables and/or database
elements (their ability to create sophisticated interactive presentations
using embedded programming languages) and their hyperlinks capabilities,
and required hardware for CBI development and delivery to students, production
costs (Wulfekuhle, 1994).
Multimedia Authoring Softwares. These are characterized with the ability
to create worldy-wise interactive CBI applications. They represent the
high end of the authoring tools scale. For interactive multimedia CBI delivery,
the use of an authoring tool will be of great help. Authoring tools permits
the user to engage in a free-flowing exploration. Special features that
contribute to authoring tools' power are things like mixing of various
events in a single frame of the presentation, path-based animation, extensive
text controls, environment controls like controlling when an image is loaded,
and memory management. Some tools also offer accelaration,
which is a process by which the presentation is compared frame by frame
and only the differences between them are stored. This accelerated file
can then be played back at a much greater rate of speed than the unaccelerated
presentation. Some of the typical features of a interactive multimedia
authoring tools are: 1) frame-by-frame metaphor (like a movie), 2) non-linear
3) multiple interactive controls, 4) complex transitions between frames
(Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 26-27), 5) cross-platform support, and 6) code incorporation
from external programming languages. Examples of the top multimedia authoring
tools for the Windows environment include Asymetrix'
Multimedia Toolbook, Macromedia's Authorware professional, and Macromedia's,
Director 4. The subsequent paragraphs describes these leading commercially
available authoring packages. Remember to take into account the previous
suggested approach to determine which best authoring tool meets the needs
of your proposed multimedia CBI application.
Developed by Asymetrix, it's a well-suited software construction set for
education and training. Its also commonly used for marketing demos and
tutorials. Its scripting language (called OpenScript) is fairly simple
and straigthfoward. Similar to HyperCard on the Macintosh, Multimedia Toolbook
builds applications using a book metaphor. The Toolbook application that
is created is organized in one or more books. The pages of
the book is composed of different elements, such as, objects
(buttons, fields, graphics, bitmaps) amd multimedia files (video clips,
sound and animation. Multimedia Toolbook supports hypertext features.
Authorware professional from Macromedia follows a lineal model and is built
on an icon-based programing language. Its used to create interactive courseware,
prototypes, simulations, and training applcations. With Authorware you
can extend the system with external programing language. Its easy to create
interactive simulations with movable objects, drag-and-drop, hyperlinks
and path based animations. Authorware builds its applications using icons
on a flowline where the position of the icon indicates the order of the
event execution. The icons control all the standard multimedia elements
like taking user input, controlling internal variables, and displaing graphics,
animations, buttons, and video (also playing MPEG). This authoring tool
supports playback of Director and Quiktime animation and video. Laserdisc
players can be easily access. The program also supports hypertext and hypermedia,
which allows to perform interactive branching, making links from text/objects
to other media (video, graphics, sound) in the application. Authorware
can create applications for either a PC or Macintosh platforms. The latest
version of Authorware (3.0) also adds Open Data Connectivity (ODBC) support
and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE 2.0)
Available of Macintosh platform and for Window's operating system. The
files created by Director are compatible with Windows, Macintosh and 3DO.
This authoring software had been very popular in developing several award-winning
commercial CDs. Director supports the basic multimedia elements needed
for a the CBI intercative production, namely, video, sound (.WAV and MIDI)
and hot spots. The scripting language that use Director is called Lingo.
Based on a visual programming metaphor called a score (borrowed
fron the musical score metaphore of MusicWorks, which displayed its notes
in a bar graph manner), Director assign steps and sequences to objects
and actors on the score. Director's movies contain a Cast
(a colection of images, sounds, text, and lingo scripts) and a Score
(shows positions of Cast members on a frame by frame basis). Lingo commands
are used to create interactivity.
Multimedia capable presentation
graphics softwares. Most faculty see multimedia as a presentation tool
for their classroom lectures. User-friendly presentation softwares are
available at the commercial market. The first commercially availalable
presentation graphics possessed limited multimedia features, and were designed
using the "slide" metaphor. Consequently, these initial presentation softwares
was also known as slide show presentation softwares. The
initial slide show programs were based on the construction of presentation
graphics. By definition, a traditionally presentation graphic
software are those capable to create visually enhanced charts and graphics
(text, xy charts, pie charts, maps, and pictorial images and drawings)
to be used for classroom lectures by means of direct electronic display
of these images using computer driven liquid cristal display (LCD) panel
or video proyector. The following are typical slide show program features:
1) slide-by-slide metaphor (build a slide, wait, build a slide, wait...),
2) linear flow only, 3) singular interactive control (timing or interactive,
not both), 4) simple (if any) animation features, and 5) simple transitions
between slides (Wolfgram, 1994, pp. 24-25). With the evolution of the microcomputers,
slide show programs incorporated other special effects features that allowed
the presentor to build a slide, wait a specified amount of time or for
a keypress (or, in some cases, mouse click), then go to the next slide.
Normally, each slide can be composed of bullets, animations, icons, images,
and background art. Different background templates for automatic creation
of entire presentations are available. Current presentation graphics softwares
had been improved with multimedia elements and hypermedia capabilities
by which powerful interactive multimedia online screen show presentations
can be delivered for classroom lectures and business presentations. They
usually allow for the playing of music and sound effects and newer versions
allows interfacing to video files. These innovative presentation softwares
posees new powerful working tools, such as: 1) full featured outliner,
2) simple user interface, 3) powered animation and system controls, and
3) non-linear (branching) data paths (Wolfgram, 1994, p. 29). The most
used window-based multimedia-capable presentation sofwares include Asymetrix
Compel, Gold Disk Astound, Harvard Graphics, Microsoft Powerpoint, Adobe
Persuation, and WordPerfect Presentations.
This program is oriented toward multimedia presentation developers. Compel
its supplied with 154 slide templates groups. Each Compel's groups includes
a different slide-style set, including placeholders for video, animation,
sound and text, and charts. Within Compel you can create a variety of charts,
including area, bar, column, high-low-close, line and pie charts. The effects
menu allows the connection of objects to media links (sound, video, animation)
and hyperlinks (branching another slide or other application). Slide transitions
and bullets transitions are included in the effects menu. From Compel's
presentation, the professor can print speakers notes and audience handouts.
You can add sound in the form of .WAV files that are triggered by various
actions from within the program.
Astound 2.0 (Gold Disk,
Inc). Following the steps of Compel, Astound's features provide multimedia-hypermedia
tools for lecture presentations, integrating a slide sorter, slide outliner,
and a editor display window. A peculiar tool of this program is his Timeline
window. This function synchronize object animations. Astound incorporates
extensive OLE integration. The developer can access digital video and animations
from Astound's Place Video tool. A well-designed audio editing tool is
included in this package. Version 2.0 incorporates Astound Studio, in which
the developer can create and edit the audio, video, graphics, and animation
files required for an multimedia presentation. This utility includes an
Image Editor, and Actor Editor, Animation Editor, Video Editor, and Graphic
Editor. Multimedia file types that can handle this program includes .WAV
and MIDI files, graphics (.BMP, .PCX, .TIFF, .GIF, .CGM, and Kodak Photo
CD images) and movie files (.AVI, QuikTime, AutoDesk or Gold Disk animation).
Astound also includes path animation for objects. Import capabilities of
the charting functions allows the access of datasets from Exel and Lotus
1-2-3 as well as delimited text. With OLE, this program allows links to
spreadsheets and other Windows applications.
Harvard Graphics 3.0 for
Windows (SPC Software Publishing). Harvard Graphics for Windows includes
a Video Player, Autodesk Animation Player and 15 animation clips. Animation
Player-compatible files can be embeded as OLE objects in any slide. Video
for Windows .AVI clip files can be set to run within a slide by setting
the Video Player to auto-playback mode. Harvard Graphics ScreenShow control
the program's slide transitions and audio elements. HyperShow function
incorporates interactive control of ScreenShow and can also launch playback
with the Video Player. Harvard F/X is a separate application included with
the Harvard Graphics package for applying a spectrum of special effects
to a presentation.
PowerPoint 4.0 (Microsoft,
Inc.). Is one of the most popular presentations programs. Text can
be entered directly into template slides or in outline form. The program's
composition display include: Outline, Sorting, Show, Speaker's Notes and
Slide Creation screens. Pre-designed color system are available, slide
transitions effects, linkage to CD-quality sound (MIDI, waveform audio),
and trigger digital video clips (AVI files) or animation files. PowerPoint
uses OLE 2.0 to link and embed media objects from other applications. Windows
Media Player can be used to play movies.
Adobe Persuation 3.0 (Adobe
Systems Corp.). Supports QuickTime Video or any other movie format
that has a Windows 3.1-compatible MCI device driver. Starts in an outliner,
where you select the graphic design layout for the entire presention from
a collection of style templates. Under the slide's headings, you can select
a bullet or text to type the subheadings. Persuasion's graphical tools
provides 87 chart types. A strong set of drawing tools are available. Interactivity
is limited to branching to other slides. Runtime player is available for
Windows, DOS and Mac.
Word Perfect Presentation
3.0 (Word Perfect, the Novell Applications Group). The process of creating
a presentation is facilitated with the utility Show Expert and Coaches.
The program allows eye-catching slide transitions. Presentations offer
the creation of various types of graphis and charts, including area, bar,
line, mixed, pie, radar, scatter, surface, table, bullets, data and organizational
charts. Multimedia supports include sound (MIDI, and CD sound tracks, images
(TWAIN support for scan images directly into the program). Presentation
lets you generate speakers's notes to accompany the slides. This program
employs OLE 2.0 to insert media clips into the presentations created. The
file is linked by copying it to the clipboard and then pasting the file
from the Edit menu.
For effective multimedia
presentations for your clasroom lectures, follow these general rules (Blaize,
Steven, 1996, p. 46): 1) keep the presentation/message simple, clear, and
stick to the point, 2) to emphasize the current topic of discussion, use
sound or another special effect, 3) avoid endless slide transitions, 3)
Rehearse your computer presentation. Before going to the classroom, you
can show your presentation to some faculty members and get advice concerning
those posible obstacles that impairs the delivery of your lecture topic
and main meassage.
Utility Software Tools
Used the Enhance the the Multimedia Online Presentations and/or Interactive
Animator (Autodesk) is the first choice among the comercially available
2-D animations programs. Animator is used for 2-D animation, paint, and
Morphing is the process of changing one image into another over a time
packages. These softwares creates and/or alter images to
make backgrounds and graphics.
Video and audio editing
porgrams. The quality of the multimedia project will heavily depend
on the type of video and sound you will incorporate. These programs should
help improve quality of the captured video and/or sound.
THE PRODUCTION OF THE EXERCISE SCIENCE AND HEALTH CBI DELIVERY
Softwares used. As
a faculty member of the Physical Education Department at the Interamerican
University, Metro Campus, I begun to mature some interactive multimedia
proyects. My first experience was using presentation graphic softwares.
Harvard Graphics for DOS was the begining. Later, with the improvements
of Windows operation system, and the development of powerful multimedia
capable Windows-based presentation softwares, I made a radical switch to
the Windows version of Harvard Graphics. Its seems to me a better choice.
With Harvard Graphics for Windows, I was able to produce a variety of standard
graphics (pies, bars, x-y charts), as well as other types of presentations
graphics (bullets, tables, organizational charts, title, drawing charts).
In addition, with Harvard Graphics for Windows I developed custom made
drawings utilizing his drawing tools. The Harvard for Windows drawing tools
was also used to make annotations and other designs within the standard
graphics created. Harvard Graphics for Windows are packed with a variety
of filters for the import of images created in another graphic program
(examples: CDR, PCD, WMF, TIFF, PCX, and others). Moreover, a collections
of over 500 simple clip art drawings are provided by the symbols library
of Harvard Graphics for Windows. Harvard Graphics also allows the import
of raw data created from differente programs, such as, Lotus 1-2-3 and
Exel spreadssheets, ASCII files and the Windows Clipboard. Harvard Graphics
can organize the presentation in slides (or charts). All related charts
(slides) are grouped into a "presentation", and stored together
as a single file. These slides can later be organized into a "ScreenShow,"
using slide transitions special effects and sound. I begun using Harvard
Graphics for Windows to produce 35mm slides (using a film recorder) and
overhead transparencies (printing the slides in an color Hewlett Packard
[HP] Deskjet). At present, I use Harvard Graphics for Windows to create
"ScreenShows" exported to a runtime file, and using the Harvard Graphic
Runtime Player to deliver my presentation. These Runtime files are displayed
by a LCD panel proyector for my lecture classroom presentations.
Time came when a new well-designed
multimedia-capable presentation software was launched to the market. This
was Compel version 1.0 for the Windows ambiency. Hands-on faculty training
workshops of this new multimedia presentation software prepared me with
the needed skills for the development of more sophisticated interactive
multimedia presentations. Compel is a multimedia presentation software
that organize visual aids or "slides", so that it can be delievred by means
of a computer screen or with a slide or overhead projector. Similar to
Harvard Graphics for Windows, the presentation is created by adding slides.
The Compel slides represents one screen of information (text, graphics,
charts, buttons for multimedia file links) of the presentation. A screen
show delivers your production stored as a presentation file. Such presentation
can be enhanced with the incorporation of multimedia files, such as video,
animation, and sound effects. In addition, Transitional effects (as well
as sound) can be added between slides and Compel animation. As in Harvard
Graphics for Windows, the multimedia presentation can be reformated to
the deliver method you desire, namely, 35mm slides, overhead transparencies,
computer screen and/or proyector system (e.g., LCD panel). The slides created
within Compel can be printed as handouts and speakers notes for the students.
Compel also includes a Runtime player, so that the presentation can be
distribuited as a stand-alone show. My current lecture presentations employs
a combination of both multimeda-capable softwares (i.e., Harvard Graphics
for Windows and Compel). I take advantage of the hyperlink tool of Compel
to launch a Harvard Graphic ScreenShow runtime presentation file.
My first experience with
an authoring software tool was Mutimedia Toolbook. Multimedia Toolbook
is a software construction set used to develop Window's applications. Toolbook
is an object-oriented development environment that provides graphical drawing
tools for creating objects and a full-featured object-oriented programing
language called Open Script for programing object's behavior. Toolbook
provides the following authoring elements: 1) hypernavigation, 2) tools
for creating graphical screens without programing, 3) a programing language
called Open Script, and 4) tools for editing and debugging applications.
Toolbook can be used for: 1) information production (handbooks, scientific
research results, references), 2) development of training packages, courseware
and online presentations, 3) information collection (address book, records,
catalog, and 4) creation of prototypes for applications. Toolbook is event-driven.
Toolbook functions by means of events generated by users action (e.g.,
pointing and clicking with the mouse). Multimedia Toolbook also function
by predefined objects with built-in behaviors. With Toolbook it could be
created applications, such as: 1) hypermedia programs (e.g., encyclopedias),
2) interactive training applications (e.g., tutorials, kiosks), 3) database
applications (e.g., mailing list, 4) games that use graphical elements
(e.g., board games, card games, or games with animation). The term application
refers to a computer program that performs specific task. The Toolbook
application that is created is organized in one or more books,
which are designed for a particular purpose. The multimedia version of
Toolbook adds animation, sound and video to the book. Drawings, scanned
images and color can also be incorporated in the book created in the authoring
software. The book created in Toolbook is divided into pages,
which represent the application's screens. The application book consist
of pages and scripts. The scripts carry out
the actions you want the the book to perform.
With the above authoring
multimedia softwares I begun building up my multimedia presentation lecture
classes under the Department of Physical Education. The courses developed
(and still under revision) are: Anatomy and Kinesiology,
and the Individual, and Nutrition for Sport Trainning.
This was not an easy tasks. Nevertheless, technical help was readily available
through the Center for Instructional Development. Multimedia elements incorporated
in my presentation included: 1) bitmaps images/pictures (digitized with
Hewleet Packard (HP) ScanJet IIc scanner, captured screen areas with Hijaak
Pro 3.0, and commercially clips, using PhotoCD and TIFF file formats),
2) vector graphics images (royalty-free clip arts, using Windows metafile
format [WMF] files, and traced bitmaps exported from CorelDraw 5.0
into WMF formats [This process was necessary to import such WMF file into
Harvard Graphic presentations]), 3) video clips (captured video clips using
Smart Video Recorder video capture board, commercially available video
clips, using audio video interleaved [AVI] format), 4) animation (Autodesk
flic [FLC, FLI] formats), 5) sound (commercially available music and special
effects sounds employing waveform [WAV] file formats).
This development process
of my multimedia presentation lectures required other windows-based software
products that supported and enhanced the quality of my presentations. These
Windows packages utilized were:
1. Image/photo and
drawing editing softwares. Corel Photo-Paint 5.0 used to
edit my scanned bitmap images. CorelTrace 5.0 for tracing scanned
bitmaps into a vector graphic format (EPS format). CorelDraw 5.0
to edit, apply color, and export into WMF format the traced encapsulated
postscript (EPS) format images. Hijaak Pro 3.0 to capture areas
from Windows screen.
2. Animation and morphing
softwares. Autodesk Animator, and AutoDesk Animator Pro
to create animations. PhotoMoph 2.0 for morphing images into FLC
and AVI formats, ASYMETRIX 3D F/X to create 3D buttons, snapshots
(bitmaps from a created scene) exportable to Compel and Multimedia Toolbook,
and animations (saved in .AVI format) that can be embed in an Object Linking
Embedding (OLE) container application.
3. Video capture and
editing softwares. Microsft Video for Windows (VFW) to capture,
edit and save frame-grabded full-motion video clips from an video recorder
(VCR) into AVI formats. VFW is a utility that capture still or motion video
and records it on the hard disk.
Hardware used. The
development of my multimedia presentation utilized the multimedia-computer
stations and peripherals (scanners, removable hard disk and video capture
boards) connected in a network located at the Center for Instruction Development
of the Interamerican University (Metro Campus). My personal home-based
multimedia system was also used during my off-campus free time. The development
system was composed of the following computer hardware and supporting multimedia
1. Computer and peripherals.
Microprocessor Intel 80486 DX with a processin speed of 33
megahert (MHz). The random access memory (RAM) was 8 megabytes (MB). Video
graphics card with a Super Video Graphics Adaptor (SVGA) resolution and
1 mb of RAM.
Two hard disk drives that sum aprroximately 800 MB, IntelliPoint Microsoft
Double-speed CD-ROM drive that supports KodakTM Photo CD format.
2. Monitor. I used
an high resolution SVGA monitor.
3. Sound card. Creative
Labs Sound Blaster Pro (for ISA).
4. Audio speakers.
Employed to monitor quality of the sound clips incorporated in my
5. Video Capture card.
Initially I captured by videos with the Creative Labs Video Blaster
card (model RT300). I had some problems with dropping frames during the
Looking for a better quality of captured frames, I switched to Intels Smart
6. Scanner. Employed
to capture full page images (still images) from magazines, books, and
photos with a HP ScanJet IIc scanner.
The multimedia delivery system
employed during my lectures presentations in the electronic classroom included
the following hardware and accesories:
1. Computer system/peripherals.
Microprocessor 80486 DX2 and 66 megahert (MHz)
speed. 8 MB of RAM. Video graphics card with SVGA resolution. Internal
SyQuest cartridge and Drive of 270 MB. Mouse. Double-speed CD-ROM drive.
2. Monitor. High resolution
3. Sound card. Sound
Blaster compatible sound card (Media Vision Pro Audio Spectrum
4. Audio speakers.
Labtec CS-550. An external build-up classroom audio system when
for microphone use.
5. Audio amplifier for
microphone and VCR use. Radio Shack, model MPA-45 35 WATT
6. Microphone system/controler.
Radio Shack, High Performance Professional FM Wireless
7. Video capture card.
Creative Labs Video Blaster card (model RT300), with overlay
8. Video recorder (VCR).
Panasonic Omnivision VHS-VCR.
9. Projection system.
LCD panel, Próxima Ovation. Overhead projector, model 2900 buhl.
THE FUTURE OF MULTIMEDIA IN HIGHER EDUCATION
The multimedia at higher
education holds great promise for academic instruction. As we move into
the twenty-first century, more higher educational institutions will be
shifting toward the development of the appropriate multimedia-based electronic
classrooms conjointly with more faculty training for the production of
interactive multimedia CBI applications and computer-generated presentations
for the lecture classrooms (includng multimedia presentations generated
and displayed through microcomputers), which will would provide an enhancing
Multimedia has a healthy
future. The multimedia revolution will continue his high-profile in the
general business, and in education. Interactive multimedia should continue
achieving success as a teaching tool. Multimedia will harvest new creative
potential educational softwares developed by the faculty. More quality
instructional media custom designed and integrated with the instructor's
normal teaching technique will be developed.
This technology will continue
to grow, showing promise for the enhancement of the presentation lectures
of the professors, as well as for an individulized self-study application
that will aid the higher education learning process.
More educational programs
will be developed for Windows operating systems. Windows allows to produce
better graphics, providing more detail and smoother animation than DOS.
More powerful and effective multimedia capable presentation softwares will
With adequate funding and
faculty support, computer-based multimedia delivery systems could become
the most common form of instructional technology on college campuses by
the end of the decade. The future challeges will be the development of
curriculum-supported interactive multimedia CBI applications that can be
used as an adjunct learning tool for the faculty members at the higher
I believe that in a near
future, a greater number of faculty departments at the university institutions
will be involved in the creation of multimedia materials, and the development
of appropriate technology classrooms, that is, new infrastucture development
of multimedia electronic classrrooms. Consequently, more classrooms will
be devoted to design and deliver educational multimedia programs. However,
future use of effective electronic classrooms will depend of several factors,
such as: ease of operation by the faculty, time needed to learn, availability
to the professors, reliability of the system, and level of delivery power
Better and more users of
faculty members developing multimedia projects will depend on the time
they have, the support that they will be given, and the the feasibilty
of an easy-to-use hardware and softwares (Sammons, 1994).
The success of instructional
multimedia at higher education will depend on the future cost of hardware
and software, the standardization of the multitude of peripherals that
are used in developing multimedia products. Multimedia delivered inexpensible
over a network is better, less cost (Solomon, 1994).
The demands for a better
total quality at the higher educational settings, particularly the teaching
quality (or teaching excellence), will position these higher educational
institutions to provide revelant instructional technologies to the university
community. The challenge is to stay abreast with the rapidly changings
of instructional multimedia, so that the university institutions can assure
a high quality of education to their students, and get them ready for the
expected technological changes of the incomming century. Moreover, These
institutions should provide to the faculty members with the required resources
to be competitive both in the classroom and in their research endeavours.
Such evolving technology
will continue to change in the hardware systems. Trends indicate increasingly
better computer interfaces, decrease in the physical size of computer systems,
better and higher capacity of digital data storage, both fixed, and removable.
The trends in presentation graphics are increasingly processor speed, higher-resolution
displays, and easier-to-use software with expandable clip art library and
high-quality templates, still and motion images.
Current trends indicate
an exciting future for instructional multimedia at higher educational institutions.
The emergene of the authoring multimedia development will continue. Trends
indicate increasingly easy-to-use, human-computer interfaces, such as development
of remote controls. A decrease in physical size will be evident, with larger
permanent and removable storages capacities and faster acccess time.
In brief, the exciting near-comming
years will impose the higher educational institutions to integrate interactive
multimedia CBI applications into the curriculum, so that it can be assured
an enhacement of the higher education total quality, particularly the quality
of the teaching-learning process. The learning through interactive CBI
lessons will heavily depend of problem-solvig situations. Multimedia computing
will play a more prominent role in the classroom. Learning will be more
student-paced, with time for individualized instruction.
RESOURCE MATERIALS LIBRARY
In order to empower the multimedia
and hypermedia capabilities of the proposed development of interactive
multimedia CBI applications and/or computer-based multimedia lecture presentations
it is necesssary to incorporate multimedia elements (text/font, images/graphics,
full-motion video, animation, and sound). Actually, there are two ways
to include these multimedia files to the instructional CBI lessons and
presentations. One way is to develop custom-based multimedia elements utilizing
special hardware/equipment and software, such as a scanner, and/or direct
digitizing of photos and video by means of special digital cameras and
camcorders, respectively (to produce images/photos), video capture board
(to develop full-motion video clips), AutoDesk Animation softwares (for
flic animations), and Sound Blaster compatible cards (for audio input and
editing). The alternate form for incorporating multimedia files into our
presentations and CBI lessons is use royalty-free commercially available
media clips (bitmap photos/images, vector graphic cliparts, MIDI and WAV
sound/music files, AVI video clip files, and animation FLC/FLI files).
The following is a list of royalty-free resource materials of media clip
files that are commercially available and that I had employed for my multimedia
presentations and interactive applications:
Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - General
COREL GALLERY Version 2.0 TASK FORCE Clip Art:
for Windows (CD-ROM) - 1995 "Really Big Edition"
File Formats: CMX (exportable) (CD-ROM) 1995
Corel Corporation File Formats: WMF, CGM
1600 Carling Ave. New Vision Technologies Inc.
Canada K1Z8R7 38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13
Telephone: Voice: (613) 728-3733 Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5
Fax: (613) 761-9176 Telephone: Voice: (613) 727-8184
Fax: (613) 727-8190 Customer Support: (613) 727-0884
INCREDIBLE 25,000 IMAGE PAKTM
CLICKART - The Instant Image Resource KEY Mega ClipArt 15,000TM
(3 CD-ROM) - 1995 (CD-ROM - 1995
File Formats: WMF File Formats: WMF
T/Maker Company SoftKey International Inc.
1390 Villa Street One Athenaeum Street
Mountain View, CA 94041 USA Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
Telephone: For Products: Telephone: Technical Support:
Voice: 800-9-TMAKER 1-770-428-0008
Voice: (415) 962-0195
Fax: (415) 962-0201
CD CLIP ART COLLECTION #1 - 2 IMAGES WITH IMPACT FOR WINDOWS
(2 CD-ROM) - 1995 Vol. 1 (1993)
File Formats: WIN - BMP; MAC - PICT File Formats: WMF
Expert Software, Inc. 3G Graphics, Inc
800 Douglas Rd. 114 Second Ave. South, Suite 104
Coral Gables, FL 33134 Edmonds, WA 98020
Telephone: Voice: (305) 567-9996 Telephone: Voice: (206) 774-3518
Fax: (305) 443-0786 Fax : (206) 771-8975
Presentation TASK FORCE V4.0 CLIPART LIBRARY
(CD-ROM) - 1991 (CD-ROM) - 1994
File Formats: WMF, CGM File Formats: WMF
New Vision Technologies, Inc. PC PAINTBRUSH
38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13 SoftKey International Inc
Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5 One Athenaem Street
Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
Publisher's TASK FORCE - Volume 1 Telephone: Technical Support:
(CD-ROM) - 1994 (404) 428-0008
File Formats: WMF, CGM Customer Service:
New Vision Technologies, Inc. (800) 227-5609
38 Auriga Drive, Unit 13
Nepean, Ontario Canada K2E 8A5 KEY COLOR CLIP ARTTM
Telephone: Voice: (613) 727-8184 (CD-ROM) -
Fax: (613) 727-8190 File Formats: WIN/DOS - WMF, CGM, PCX Customer
Support: (613) 727-0884 MAC - PCX, TIFF
Softkey International Inc
CLIPART GALLERY (CD-ROM) - 1994 One Athenaem Street
File Formats: WMF, BMP Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
Digital Systems Research, Inc.
DRS Software, Inc. CLIP ART IMAGES
5 Park Plaza, Suite 770 (CD ROM) - 1994
Irvine, CA 92714 File Formats: BMP, PCX
Telephone: Voice: (714) 553-6575 Cristal Vision Software
Fax: (714) 553-6585 2245 Camino Vida Roble, Suite 100
Carlsbad, California 92009
CorelDRAW - Corel ArtShow
Corel ArtShow Series 2-5 (1991-1994) PUBLISHER'S PARADISE V2.0
(4 CD-ROMS) Sample CD - 1995
File Formats: CDR (Corel Draw) File Formats: WMF. EPS, PCX, TIFF
An annual publication of Corel Corp. Media Graphics International
Corel Corporation 8175-A Sheridan Blvd #355
1600 carling Avenue Arvada, Colorado 80003
Ottawa, Ontario Telephone: (Voice): 427-8808
Canada K1Z 8R7
Telephones: Voice: (613) 728-8200 LINE ART SHOWCASE CLIP ART SERIES
Fax : (613) 728-2891 (1994), File Formats: CGM
531 E. Elliot Rd.
Chandler, AZ 85225-1152 USA
Phone: Tech Support: (602) 545-8089
Fax: (602) 545-8090
Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Backgrounds
PUBLISHER'S PARADISE: MediClipTM V1.0
BACKGROUND IMAGES (CD-ROM) - 1992
(CD-ROM) - 1993, Release B File Formats:
File Formats: WMF, CGM, WPG, TIF IBM - CGM, EPS, WMF, TIFF Media
Graphics International MAC - EPS, TIFF, PICT, PNT
8175-A Sheridan Blvd #355 Alpha Media
Arvada, Colorado 80003 4501 Glencoe Avenue
Telephone: (303) 427-8808 Marina del Rey, CA 90292-6372
Telephone: Voice: (310) 577-0400
MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc Fax: (310) 577-0402
Series 07 - Backgrounds/Borders Order: 1-800-832-1000
File Formats: CGM
Master Clips, Inc. Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Food
IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. CLICART EXPRESS - Food & Beverages
5201 Ravenswood Road (CD-ROM) - 1995
Suite 111 File Formats: WMF
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 T/Maker Company
Telephone: (305) 983-7440 1390 Villa Street
Mountain View, CA 94041 USA
BORDERS & BACKGROUNDS Clip Art Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195
(CD-ROM) - 1994 Fax: (415) 962-0201
File Formats: WMF, EPS, CGM, PCX E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pro OneTM Software
a division of SOFSOURCE MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc
P.O. Box 16317 Series 21 - Food
Las Cruces, NM 88004 File Format: CGM
Telephone: Support Hotline: Master Clips, Ic.
1-505-523-6200 IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc
5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111
Vector Graphic CLIPARTS - Medical Fort Lauderdale, FL
MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc. Vector Graphic CLIPARTS
Series 10 - Medical
File Formats: CGM CLIKART EXPRESS - Sports & Recreation
Master Clips, Inc. (CD-ROM) - 1995
IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. File Formats: WMF
5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111 T/Maker Company
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 1390 Villa Street
Telephone: (305) 983-7440 Mountain View, CA 94041 USA
Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195
SUPER ANATOMY 1 (CD-ROM) - 1994 Fax: (415) 962-0201
File Formats: WMF, CGM, EPS E-MAIL: email@example.com
1463 Warrensville Center Road
Cleveland, Ohio 44121-2676 USA
Telephone: 800 - Lifeart
Outside US: (216) 291-1922
MasterclipsTM Graphics, Inc PHOTO CD GALLERY #1
Series 04 - Sports (CD ROM) -1995
Series 13 - Leisure/Entertainment File Formats: BMP, TIF
File Format: CGM Expert Software, Inc.
Master Clips, Inc. 800 Douglas Rd.
IMSI Microcomputer Softwares, Inc. Coral Gables, FL 33134
5201 Ravenswood Road, Suite 111 Telephone: Voice: (305) 567-9996
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33312-6004 Fax: (305) 443-0786
Telephone: (305) 983-7440
KEY Photo Gallery
COLOR CLIPS (2 CD-ROM) - 1995
Sports Edition - 1993 File Format: TIF
Compu Works SoftKey International Inc
The WizartWorks Group One Athenaem Street
3850 Annapolis Lane North, Sute 100 Cambridge, MA 02142 USA
Minneapolis, MN 55447-5443 USA Telephone: Technical Support:
Telephone: Customer Hotline: 1-770-428-0008
Voice: (612) 559-5301
Fax: (612) 559-5126 ALLEGRO NEW MEDIA
CLICKART Studio Series Graphic Textures
Sports & Recreation Graphic Photos
T/Maker Company File Formats: IBM/MAC - TIF
1390 Villa Street Allegro New Media
Mountain View, CA 94041 USA 387 Passaic Avenue
Telephone: Voice: (415) 962-0195 Fairfield, NJ 07004
Fax: (415) 962-0201 Telephone: Voice: (201) 808-1992
Bitmaps Graphics Cliparts Bitmaps Graphics CLIPARTS
KPT Power Photos EXPESIV TEXTURES
Volumes 1-V (CD-ROM) - 1994
File Formats: TIFF File Format: TIF
Series One, Volumes 1-V WorldArt
HSC Software a unit of TigerDirect Inc.
6303 Carpintería Ave. 9100 S. Dadeland Blvd., Suite 1503
Telephones: Voice: (805) 566-6200 Miami, FL 33156
Fax: (805) 566-6385 Telephone: Technical Support:
COREL PROFESSIONAL PHOTOS - CD-ROM 300 SEAMLESS TEXTURES
Food - Series 25000 (1993 Textures for Profesionals
Amateur Sports - Series 226000 File Formats: TGA, TIF
Recreational Sports - Series 206000 Visual Software, Inc
File Format: PCD 21731 Ventura Blvd., Suite 310
Corel Corporation Woodland Hills, CA 91364
1600 Carling Ave. Telephone: Voice: (818) 883-7900 Canada K1Z8R7 Fax:
Telephone: Voice: (613) 728-3733 Toll Free (US/Canada): (800) 669-7318
FAX: (613) 761-9176
Vector Graphic BITMAPS - Medical
MEDICAL ILLUSTRATION LIBRARY KABOOM!TM for Windows - 1994
General Anatomy I-II (1994) Nova Development Corporation
File Formats: IBM & MAC 23801 Calabasas Road, Suit 2005
William & Wilkins Calabasas, California 91302-1547
A Waverly Company Telephone: Customer Service:
428 E. Preston Street (818) 591-9600
Baltimore, MD 21202 Fax: (818) 591-8885
Toll Free: (800) 527 -5597 MusicBytesTM - 1991
Outside US:(419) 528-4532 ProsonusTM
Fax: (410) 528 - 4422 11126 Weddington
Video Clips California 91601
Telephone: Voice: (818) 766-5221
SPORTS IN MOTION (1993) Fax: (818) 766-6098
File Format: AVI
Jasmine Multimedia Pub., Inc WIRED SOUND PRO CD
6746 Valjean Ave. Aristosoft
Van Nuys, CA 91406 7041 Koll Center Parkway, Ste. 160
Telephone: (800) 798-7535 Peasanton, CA 94566
Telephone: (800) 338-2629
MEDICAL VIDEOS (Not Royalty Free) (800) 426-8288
File Format: AVI Fax: (510) 426-6703
WANCA SRL SoundWAV
Eugenio Garzon 3746 CD-ROM - Volume1 , 1993
Buenos Aires, Argentina Data Express Inc
Telephone: Voice: (404) 621-9210
MICROSOFT VIDEO FOR WINDOWS Fax: (404) 621-9122
Digital Video Samples - 1992
File Format: AVI
KEY SOUND SENSATIONS!TM - 1994
Cambridge, MA, 02139-1901
100 of the World's Greatest
Sound EffectsTM - 1993
Interactive Publishing Corporation
300 Airport Executive Park
Spring Valley, NY 10977
Adkins, S.S., Boiko, B.,
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Copyright © 1996 Edgar Lopategui